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Introduction – First, a new blood group has been found in India, which is also the rarest worldwide. A 65-year-old man in India’s western state of Rajkot who suffers from heart disease expose to the rare blood type EMM negative, which cannot be secret into the four other blood types (A, B, O, or AB). The human body contains 42 blood systems: A, B, O, Rh, and Duffy. In general, there are four different blood group types. EMM is also present in high amounts in 375 different types of antigens. People with these scarce blood types cannot donate or receive blood from others. Only 9 persons in the globe have the rarest blood type today, but a 65-year-old man from Rajkot, Gujarat, has found to have it.

EMM Negative Rare Blood Group

EMM Negative Rare Blood Group

The ‘EMM negative’ blood group was detected in a 65-year-old heart patient in Gujarat. Only eight people across the globe have the rare blood group.

Here’s everything you need to distinguish about the EMM blood group:

People with EMM negative blood group can’t donate blood to anyone. They can neither accept blood from anyone.

The rare blood group detect at Lok Samarpan Raktadan Kendra and Research Centre in Surat. Dr. Sanmukh Joshi, who discover, told that the patient refer from Prathma Blood Bank in Ahmadabad.

The lab testing of the blood sample collect from his body was quite different and strange from the existing groups.

Dr. Joshi said that no blood was matching due to some antibody present in his plasma. So, he decide to send the man and his family samples to New York for further testing.

“In further collaboration with the scientist at Harvard Medical School in the USA, the patient was types EMM negative, and it deliberates at the International Society of Blood Transfusion and recognized and assigned at the new blood group system called EMM with symbol EMM042,” he added.

According to OMIM, an online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, EMM has designate the 42nd blood group system.

People with this blood group have an EMM phenotype due to homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PIGG gene, said the OMIM article. In addition, they have naturally occurring anti-EMM antibodies that identify during routine blood type and crossing.


The Emm-negative blood group is a scarce blood type, with only ten known cases reported globally before this study. Here, we present the 11th case of the Emm-negative blood group, identified in a 32-year-old female patient. This review provides a complete analysis of the case, discusses the clinical implications of this rare blood group, and compares the presented case with the previous ten documented instances. The study aims to contribute to understanding the mm-negative blood group and guide its management in transfusion medicine.


The 32-year-old female patient present to the hospital with severe anemia. Blood samples were collect for laboratory analysis, including complete blood count (CBC), blood typing, and antibody screening. Further investigations were perform using molecular and serological techniques to confirm the Emm-negative blood group.

Results for EMM Negative Blood Group

The patient’s blood type was found to be AB RhD-positive. Initial serological tests for blood group antigens showed a weak reaction with anti-Emm. Molecular testing confirmed the absence of the Emm antigen, which cause by a homozygous mutation in the ART4 gene. A comprehensive literature review revealed only ten other cases of the Emm-negative blood group, making this the 11th reported case worldwide.

Discussion of Blood Group

Discussion of Blood Group

The rarity of the Emm-negative blood group presents challenges in transfusion medicine. Patients with this blood type may develop anti-Emm antibodies, leading to hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) if they receive Emm-positive blood. Therefore, screening for anti-Emm antibodies and identifying Emm-negative blood donors for these patients is crucial.

Identifying the 11th case of the Emm-negative blood group contributes to our understanding of this rare blood type and its clinical implications. However, further research and collaboration between blood banks and healthcare institutions are essential to ensure the appropriate management of these patients, including identifying Emm-negative blood donors and developing guidelines for transfusion therapy. Keep reading to know about

India’s First Unique Blood Group: EMM Negative Blood Group

So far, there were only 9 people in the world with such a rarest blood group, but now, a 65-year-old man from Gujarat’s Rajkot has identify with the said blood group.

The 65-year-old man undergoing treatment in Ahmedabad after a heart attack.

He need blood for his heart surgery, but when his blood type was not in Ahmedabad’s Prathama laboratory, his blood samples sent to the blood donation center in Surat.

Further testing revealed that the man has the world’s rarest blood type. Before him, there were only 9 people with the world’s most rare blood type.

The International Civilization of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) designate the blood type as EMM negative as is no EMM present in the blood.


Blood groups define by the attendance or absence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). While the ABO and Rh systems are the most well-known, more than 300 blood group antigens have identify. The mm-negative blood group is a rare blood type characterize by lacking the Emm antigen, which belongs to the Dombrock blood group system (DO). The ART4 gene encodes the Emm antigen, and its absence can lead to immunological reactions in transfusion settings.

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